Smart contract instances#

A smart contract instance is a smart contract module together with a specific state and an amount of CCD tokens. Multiple smart contract instances can be created from the same module. For example, for an auction contract, there could be multiple instances, each one dedicated to bidding for a specific item and with its own participants.

Smart contract instances can be created from a deployed smart contract module via the init transaction which invokes the requested function in the smart contract module. This function can take a parameter. Its end result is required to be the initial smart contract state of the instance.


A smart contract instance is often just called an instance.

digraph G { rankdir="BT" subgraph cluster_0 { label = "Module"; labelloc=b; node [fillcolor=white, shape=note] "Crowdfunding"; "Escrow"; } subgraph cluster_1 { label = "Instances"; style=dotted; node [shape=box, style=rounded] House; Car; Gadget; Boardgame; } House:n -> Escrow; Car:n -> Escrow; Gadget:n -> Crowdfunding; Boardgame:n -> Crowdfunding; }

Example of smart contract module containing two smart contracts: Escrow and Crowdfunding. Each contract has two instances.#

State of a smart contract instance#

The state of a smart contract instance consists of two parts, the user-defined state and the amount of CCD the contract holds, i.e., its balance. When referring to state it typically means only the user-defined state. The reason for treating the CCD amount separately is that CCD can only be spent and received according to rules of the network, e.g., contracts cannot create or destroy CCD tokens.

Instantiating a smart contract on-chain#

Every smart contract must contain a function for creating smart contract instances. Such a function is referred to as the init function.

To create a smart contract instance, an account sends a special transaction with a reference to the deployed smart contract module and the name of the init function to use for instantiation.

The transaction can also include an amount of CCD, which is added to the balance of the smart contract instance. A parameter to the function is supplied as part of the transaction in the form of an array of bytes.

To summarize, the transaction includes:

  • Reference to the smart contract module.

  • Name of the init function.

  • Parameter to the init function.

  • Amount of CCD for the instance.

The init function can signal that it does not wish to create a new instance with those parameters. If the init function accepts the parameters, it sets up the initial state of the instance and its balance. The instance is given an address on the chain and the account who sent the transaction becomes the owner of the instance. If the function rejects, no instance is created and only the transaction for attempting to create the instance is visible on-chain.

See also

See Initialize a smart contract instance guide for how to initialize a contract in practice.

Instance state#

Every smart contract instance holds its own state which is represented on-chain as an array of bytes. The instance uses functions provided by the host environment to read, write and resize the state.

See also

See Smart contract instance state for a reference of these functions.

Smart contract state is limited in size. Currently the limit on smart contract state is 16KiB.

See also

Check out Resource accounting for more on this.

Interacting with an instance#

A smart contract can expose zero or more functions for interacting with an instance, referred to as receive functions.

Just like with init functions, receive functions are triggered using transactions, which contain some amount of CCD for the contract and an argument to the function in the form of bytes.

To summarize, a transaction for smart-contract interaction includes:

  • Address to smart contract instance.

  • Name of the receive function.

  • Parameter to the receive function.

  • Amount of CCD for the instance.

Logging events#

Events can be logged during the execution of smart contract functions. This is the case for both init and receive functions. The logs are designed for off-chain use, so that actors outside of the chain can monitor for events and react to them. Logs are not accessible to smart contracts, or any other actor on the chain. Events can be logged using a function supplied by the host environment.

See also

See Logging events for the reference of this function.

These event logs are retained by validators and included in transaction summaries.

Logging an event has an associated cost, similar to the cost of writing to the contract’s state. In most cases it would only make sense to log a few bytes to reduce cost.

There is no limit to the number of logs per invocation (apart from energy).

Action descriptions#

A receive function returns a description of actions to be executed by the host environment on the chain.

The possible actions that a contract can produce are:

  • Accept is a primitive action that always succeeds.

  • Simple transfer of CCD from the instance to the specified account.

  • Send: invoke receive function of the specified smart contract instance, and optionally transfer some CCD from the sending instance to the receiving instance.

If an action fails to execute, the receive function is reverted, leaving the state and the balance of the instance unchanged. However,

  • the transaction that triggers the (unsuccessful) receive function is still added to the chain, and

  • the transaction cost, including the cost of executing the failed action, is deducted from the sending account.

Processing multiple action descriptions#

You can chain action descriptions using the and combinator. An action-description sequence A and B

  1. Executes A.

  2. If A succeeds, executes B.

  3. If B fails the whole action sequence fails (and the result of A is reverted).

Handling errors#

Use the or combinator to execute an action in case that a previous action fails. An action description A or B

  1. Executes A.

  2. If A succeeds, stops executing.

  3. If A fails, executes B.

digraph G { node [color=transparent] or1 [label = "Or"]; and1 [label = "And"]; transA [label = "Transfer x to Alice"]; transB [label = "Transfer y to Bob"]; transC [label = "Transfer z to Charlie"]; or1 -> and1; and1 -> transA; and1 -> transB; or1 -> transC; }

Example of an action description, which tries to transfer to Alice and then Bob, if any of these fails, it will try to transfer to Charlie instead.#

See also

See Action description for a reference of how to create the actions.

The whole action tree is executed atomically, and either leads to updates to all the relevant instances and accounts, or, in case of rejection, to payment for execution, but no other changes. The account which sent the initiating transaction pays for the execution of the entire tree.

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